Four Important Things to Check When Buying a Used Motor Yacht

One of the best way to get into boating is by buying a used yacht and allowing others to see their depreciation hit on the new yacht. As a matter of fact, before buying a used motor yacht, one needs to go through some planning and details. Many customers have learned bad lessons by not realizing precisely what to search for in a used motor yachts for sale.


There is a famous quote for boat owners, “the two best days in the life of a boat owner are the day of purchasing the yacht and the day when they sell their yacht”. If one is thinking of buying a used yacht, one should keep in mind that the seller wants to get rid of that for some reason.

Research: Find the horsepower, type size and brand of yacht one wants.

a. Study the brand and its position in the variety of used yachts that one is finding. As an example, find whether it is a reliable brand, is it low priced? Where does the brand stand in the market? Is it still in production? Companies with higher production usually sell for a lower price than the huge marquee brands belonging to any category of yacht which will usually be lesser in number. One needs to know the value of brands in the area.

b. Go through the status of the engine which could be; say a masterpiece or obsolete or dysfunctional. Does it carry some other issues? For example, an old two stroke diesel engine is not supposed to be as good as a four-stroke diesel engine. EFI engines are faster to ignite and they are usually more fuel efficient than the so called carburetted engines. The boat with the less demanded engine is expected to be less costly and one must think if the money expended in buying the used yacht ( is worth the compromise in performance and repair costs.

c. History say that generally yacht owners have purchased the largest boat they can go for, but one must remember that almost everything will cost more while using a bigger yacht.

Inspect Carefully: One must be aware of the hints of damage, bad construction and abuse. Check for the obvious, for example the gel coat and upholstery. Look for the upholstery too. If the above is not maintained, there is a huge probability that the rest of the yacht has not attained much love and attention either. Can one see the cracking of the gel coat cracking and spider web at the corners? Inspect whole of the deck for any soft spots. If the deck is not upto mark, leave immediately. See if the engine room is rusty, or there is oil under the engine. Also, check the water lines under the yacht or on the engine. This shows that the boat has flooded before. If the parts of the exterior paintwork and gel coat are badly matched, then that implies that the yacht had met an accident previously.Inspect the control cables and make sure that they are working properly. See the sea cocks and the hatches and open and close it to affirm that it is working sound. Water marks inside the hatches signifies that these are not water tight anymore. Test all of the systems which include the bilge pumps, stove, generator, winches and AC.Hardware must be firmly attached along with the electrical items and connections that is supposed to be rust free.

Get to know the owner’s background: The best yacht to buy would be from a reliable source such as a good folk. Deposit money must be held confidentially by a trusted third party till all of the paperwork is finished. The yacht might be stolen or the seller might steal the deposit and vanish. Confirm the real address of the seller. Get a contact number from  them and make sure it works. Visit both the boat and the owner’s home in person. Check the contact details such as email address. It would be better if the buyer visits the seller’s home personally.

History of the Yacht: One must be enlightened with the source of the boat before buying. There are supposedly best deals out there. In a nutshell, boats used by a single owner are a better option than the ones that have been through different users. Keep the copies of the title or documentation and sales receipt. Get the maintenance records. Most importantly, make sure that the seller is the real owner of the yacht.

How to Shop for a Used Power Boat

Used power boats, pre-owned boats, yachts with experience! Whatever you call it, they are boats that somebody else had before. We all have the doubts and nightmares of buying “used” and getting someone else’s mess. In reality, used power boats for sale can be a perfect deal—if you know what to search for and what to miss! This report can help you separate out the lemons so that you end up with a plum!

A pre-owned boat can provide you and your family loads of enjoyment out on the water. The right boat can cruise, fish, ski, tube and do anything you would like—approximately as good as a new boat. Moreover, it will cost you less money, making it a good investment.

Right now, it is a very good time to be finding out a used boat. More new powerboats were sold in the late 1990’s and 2000’s than in any other era in history. Many of these boats are now sold again. The marketplace has many “used” boats present at good prices and they still have a high value. If you are ready, it is a great time to buy a boat!


Aside from getting a good price you can also find used boats that were properly made and can still perform impeccably well. Fiberglass almost lasts forever; the engines are used less than half the year and good care can keep the interiors like a new one. The right used boat can be a great way to get out outdoors and enjoy the scenery.

While checking out a used boat ( look for signs of overall maintenance. Even life jackets, lines, and fenders could be clues to how much care, the boat has got. Here is a list of other things to look for. When in doubt, call in a professional.

1. Find the cracks in the fiberglass above and below the waterline

Dinky cracks, for example spider webs in localized areas, are mostly cosmetic. They seem to appear near screws that has not been countersunk properly around windshields, handles and gunwales. Not a problem, but they may get worse if not fixed.

Cracks greater than 2 inches long show larger problems underneath. Ask whether the boat has been in a collision and search for signs, such as gel coat patches, that implies extensive repairs. Get an expert to test the boat.

2. Inspect for signs of damage

Mold, moisture, flexing and cracking in fiberglass and wooden areas, such as the hull, transom, and floor? 
These can show rot, the breakdown of fiberglass, de-lamination of plywood, or even 
rot in the stringers. You’ll likely wish to walk.

3. Find the loose seats

The floor may be rotten or not good, or it can simply be that the bolts are stripped. The marina can easily fix the above issue.

4. Look for mildew

Do the carpet, seat, or boat top has mildew and other damage (you must check the storage lockers too)? Covers and Upholstery can be cleaned or replaced, but extensive mold under the seats is a not a good sign. Also, mold spreads easily, so spores on these surfaces, may be in the wooden parts as well; a moldy carpet can define problems underneath.

5. Make sure the electronics work

Damaged bulbs and seized bilge pumps have cheap solutions.

Different devices on the fritz, could show faulty wiring or a faulty battery, again, not a huge deal. But you need to see if the labels on the engine have peeled, signs of engine overheating and trouble or if insulation on the wires has melted.

6. Check the belts

Is the alternator or power-steering belts cracked, thin or worn out? 
Belts must be changed every hundred hours.

7. Check the engine

Does the engine start rough or slip, makes excessive noise, vibrates , or smokes? Old gas or excessive oil is fixed easily during your first tune-up. 
But, these symptoms can indicate a bigger problem, such as low compression in the cylinders, indicating a costly engine overhaul.

8. Test the oil

Is the engine oil feeling gritty between your fingers? Grit is the metal filings, which can indicate serious engine wear. If a mechanic confirms, abandon ship.

If there’s milky oil in the engine or lower unit, this means water is getting in. A bent prop shaft can be straightened and a blown or worn seal replaced. But an impact causing this kind of damage may have stressed the gears or, if water got inside, the gears may be corroded then it’s a bad news.

Five Important Stages of Wire Harness Design

Cables and wires are an indispensable part of our lives. Humans have depended on them for decades together to transmit power and information from one part to another. Technological advancements have improved many aspects of cable and wires such as design, manufacturing methods, equipment, raw materials used etc. Wire harnesses are a product of this relentless effort to experiment and innovate. Also known as cable assembly or cable harness, in this article we are going to briefly discuss its advantages and mainly discuss the 5 important stages of wire harness design.

Wire Harness- An Overview

Wire harness is manufactured like any other cable or wire, except for the fact that it includes a number of small wires within, with varying characteristics or not, connected to a single connector housing. Since multiple wires are powered by a common source and all of them transmit data/power to a single destination, a lot of time and money is saved on installation procedures. Also, since all the wires are bundled together using sleeves or shields, the tangling of wires is prevented, thus avoiding tripping hazards. Bundling them together reduces the overall wear and tear, and also helps in easier storage. Wire harnesses are extensively used in electronic devices, medical equipment, airplane manufacture and automobiles.

Five Important Stages of Wire Harness Design5 Stages of Wire Harness Design

The process that involves finalizing the raw materials required, considerations needed to be made before manufacture and steps to be followed during manufacture is known as the wire harness design. It mainly involves the below mentioned stages, which must be carried out with great care and precision.

1. Specifying the Characteristics

Every industrial sector is unique in its own way and has its own set of requirements. This is not an exception when it comes to the wire harness. In order to suit their specific requirements, clients will provide a set of characteristics they would need in the finished product. For example, specifications will be provided on conductor sizes, conductor type, insulation material, etc. and manufacturers have to produce accordingly. Also, certain transmission outcomes are desired and in order to achieve them, manufacturers must truly understand the purpose of the harness and characteristics required to achieve that. With this step, our wire harness design begins.

2. Crimp Connectors

Crimp connectors which are basically used to terminate the harness from both sides are as important as the wires within. During the wire harness design, the manufacturer has to accurately measure the length of the wires needed for the specification. Once the wires are cut to the defined length, other considerations such as the length requirement between contacts and length requirement between connector and wire ends have to be verified. Tests like pull test and continuity test must also be made to ensure that the wires and connectors are firmly placed together.

3. Insulation and Safety

Ensuring the safety and durability of the harness is an important stage in the process of wire harness design. Industries have extreme working conditions and wires are generally exposed to a lot of external factors such as abrasion, vibration, UV rays, shock and moisture in these working conditions. However, they can be protected from these factors for a long time, provided they are properly insulated. At this stage, all the necessary steps needed to ensure the safety of the wire harness are carried out. Few of those steps include deciding the type of labeling, shielding and insulation needed.

4. Substitutions

Many a times, it won’t be possible to find the exact raw material that is needed to achieve the desired outcome. However, in order to meet the delivery deadlines and still retain the desired outcome, we can make real-time modifications and come up with alternative materials and methods. During the process of wire harness design, one has to be ready for these immediate changes and quickly come up with feasible alternatives.

5. Identifying Errors

Lastly, before the wire harness is released to the market for sales, the finished product has to be tested for its design efficiency, transmission capability, durability, elasticity, insulation etc. While making these tests, one might uncover serious issues like crosstalk, signal/power interference, faulty grounding etc. Once recognized, it won’t take long to rectify these mistakes and release the finished wire harness ( to the market. Hence, identifying errors is also a major process in wire harness design.

Review of The Life of John Ruskin by W. G. Collingwood

This as an authoritative biography of John Ruskin unveils the life, works and time of the influential nineteenth century art critic and literary figure. Drawing immensely from Ruskin’s diaries and a mighty volume of unpublished letters and several other insightful documents it offers the reader fresh portrait of the personality in its totality. Besides offering lively insight in the backdrop of Ruskin’s life the volume also provides key for a better understanding of Ruskin’s works published in several volumes. The beautiful account of his early life and upbringing apart, the book on The Life of John Ruskin by W. G. Collingwood also unveils the influence of Victorian household in shaping his artistic spirit. From his travels around continents to closer look at his friends, acquaintances and relations to the development of his aesthetic values and refinement of his tastes, the biography portrays each and every aspect of this artist-prodigy’s life.

Introducing John Ruskin

Understanding the present biography and its significance requires having some basic information on the importance of John Ruskin as the invaluable art critic who to this day is respected world over for introducing his contemporary artists to the wider audience and his critical writings on art and society. Ruskin’s complete works consist of total 38 volumes which is by its sheer length and size alone is enough indicative of Ruskin’s expanding career as an author and influence over his time and beyond. Ruskin’s writings besides influencing his contemporaries and political as well as social institutions and personalities garnered praise from figures such as Oscar Wilde, Gandhi and Proust.

The famous association that led to this volume

W.G. Collingwood ( is likely to have best insights on Ruskin’s life as he was one of his close associates and friend. After meeting Ruskin in 1872 for the first time in University College, Oxford, in the later years he became a close associate of Ruskin and their friendship continued for the rest of their life. Ruskin expressed admiration for Collingwood’s draughtsmanship. Collingwood is credited to edit a number of texts by Ruskin as well. This long association and close relationship naturally granted him more freedom and ease in formulating the biographical account of Ruskin.

In depth exploration of the life, time and work of Ruskin

In his time he has been one of the most dominating figures in the world of art and art criticism and this biographical account went into the depth of his stature as an art critic, author and influential figure. Withstanding the fluctuations of reputation and the unpredictable tumult of events John Ruskin left his unmistakable mark on his contemporary time making him an admired figure by eminent world personalities of his time. The present biography focused on various sides of his personality besides offering insights on Ruskin’s time and major socio political upheavals and events. While till the first half of twentieth century his influence over the world of art and social strata was evident, this biography will continue to introduce his personality and thought to the readers of present and future.

A Brief Review of the Benefactress by Elizabeth Von Arnim

The Benefactress by Elizabeth Von Arnim, a somewhat fairy tale story begins like this:

When Anna Estcourt was twenty-five, and had begun to wonder whether the pleasure extractable from life at all counterbalanced the bother of it, a wonderful thing happened.

Though The Benefactress by Elizabeth Von Arnim is one of the earlier novels of the author as the book first published way back in 1901, it nevertheless fails to portray the quintessential preoccupations and spirits of the author. Von Arnim clearly took a lot from her own experiences for inspiration in this novel as well.

A Brief Review of the Benefactress by Elizabeth Von Arnim

The literary trademarks of Elizabeth Von Arnim

Elizabeth Von Arnim as an author of considerable reputation and grit published a total of 21 novels spanning across her life that ended at the age of 74 in 1941. The variety of her subjects is really bewildering ad really make them difficult for the reader and critics to encapsulate. Ranging from the flamboyantly escapist portrait in The Enchanted April to the nerve raking thriller Vera to the witty classic The Pastor’s Wife, you cannot come to a quick and straightforward decision about this gifted author of Nineteenth century.

Interestingly enough, though now the entire literary world knows her as Elizabeth von Arnim (, she never published in her own lifetime under this name. Her husband was a well known German aristocrat named Graf Henning August von Arnim-Schlagenthin did not approve his wife’s writing career and so to evade public embarrassment Elizabeth continued to write novels publishing anonymously.

One recurrent theme that linked all her work is the garden and the plants and flowers occupying them. To take the famous Virginia Woolf quotation that every woman needs a room of her own, we can as well misquote Von Arnim having said that every woman needs a garden.

The compelling as well as sensitive storyline and storytelling

Anna Estcourt, beautiful girl at her twenty-five, still unmarried, has been raised under the guardianship of her elder brother and his whimsical, socially ambitious wife, Susie. He had no money and consequently no independence for her. Anna even when grown up is to live like a child under the Susie’s domination. This torment of the protagonist makes up the main backdrop of the storyline. While Susie continues exercise her unjust command over Anna almost captivating her from the life outside, Anna, an idealistic and tender soul, refuses to break apart the bond just because of her moral and idealistic views on life.

In another chapter of the novel, when Uncle Joachim, the brother of Anna’s German mother comes to visit, they two quickly become affectionate friends. But, both of them fail to understand each other completely as they belong to two complete worlds of upbringing and moral subjection. Though, her uncle understands her gnawing cry inside, her in-depth will for an independent life. So, at the time of his death just a few months later, Anna suddenly finds herself an heiress, inheritor of a the property of her uncle.

Until this time, Anna had no intention of marrying a good gentleman whether he is a German or not, particularly because of the generous annual income that she has now she considers leading an independent life is her ideal choice. This is the life she dreamed for so long that even living in the obscure rural Germany did not repelled her. Anna went there with Susie and her brother. Now blessed that she is with such a huge property, she readily decided to spend her fortune to accommodate the distressed gentlewomen, to offer them independence and comforting residence so that they like her do not need to rely on relatives. Though it was readily recognized as a noble plan everyone commented on the impracticality of it as well. The following storyline deals the drama that ensues from her dream benevolent project and the challenges overpowering her from all sides.

Von Arnim’s trademark feminism is explicit in this novel but in referring to the tyranny of men and desire of women for independence, the book undoubtedly expressed the generous side of some open hearted men and actually made a male hero, her departed uncle without whom she could not have got the freedom from tormenting bondage. Though it is not typical of her works, this burst of feminism through the depiction of men’s ignorance towards women and tyrannical attitude towards their freedom has been a recurring theme in many of her novels. The love that awaits Anna in her Uncle’s estate is repressed silently in the heart of a thoughtful young bachelor responsible for looking after the estate beside Anna. Avoiding of the much awaited outcome of their meeting in a relationship and loving bond was deliberately side-passed by the author only to give vent to her real sensitive project and constant preoccupation, the distressed women reeling under the domination of men.

Five Reasons to Use Inverted Microscopes over Regular Microscopes

Microscopes are used for a wide array of applications, ranging from scientific research to diagnosis of health problems, to study forensic reports to teach science to children in schools. Most of the microscopes that we know are upright microscopes which have the objective lens at the top and the stage at the bottom. The objective lens magnifies the sample placed on the stage when the sample is lit from below using a light source and observed using an eyepiece which further magnifies the already magnified sample image. This is the basic structure of the regular, upright microscopes that we know. So what are inverted microscopes, how different are inverted microscopes from regular ones and what advantages do they offer? Read on to know.

Inverted microscopes, contrary to the common belief have the light source and the condenser on the top of the stage and the objective lens is placed below the stage, hence the name inverted microscopes. Inverted microscopes were invented by J. Lawrence Smith in 1850 and ever since the invention, inverted microscopes are widely used for biological observations which include cells, organisms and blood samples. One of the main reasons why researches use inverted microscope is because a few samples are severely affected by gravity and settle down, which results in lesser visibility from the eyepiece that is placed above the stage in regular microscopes like compound microscope or stereo microscope. In situations like this, an inverted microscope helps visualizing the samples easily as the eyepiece and the objective lens are placed below the stage and gravity doesn’t affect the observation. Apart from the above mentioned fact, researchers have found many more advantages of these microscopes that has led to their widespread use in industrial applications as well. Here is a list of those advantages.

1. It’s quick and cost-effective

Yes, inverted microscopes are time saving and also cost effective at the same time. This is because once you focus a sample in an inverted microscope the sample stays focused for further magnifications and remains the same for all other samples with the same focal preferences. Hence it is easier to make multiple observations within a short span of time and even with little or no training one can make the observations without multiple operations and focal adjustments. Thus it reduces the workforce needed in big laboratories and saves the cost on their training.

2. More freedom

Regular, uptight microscopes have one annoying limitation that doubles the amount of work invested. This limitation is that the sample under observation should have an average height of 80 mm and a weight of 3 kg. This limitation hinders a lot of observations in industrial applications and requires that bigger samples are observed part by part. However, since the objective lens in placed below the sample, using inverted microscopes it is possible to place samples that are as heavy as 30kg.

3. It’s easier to prepare samples

As mentioned above, inverted microscopes offer flexible options to place the samples as it is without any size or height restrictions. In addition, processing of only one side of the sample is sufficient and there’s no need to embed the samples nor cut them down into smaller samples. Also, while observing there’s no need to level the sample using a sample press for accuracy. Thus inverted microscopes make it very easy to prepare samples and place them on the stage.

Five Reasons to Use Inverted Microscopes over Regular Microscopes

4. Less Risky

Crashing the objective into the sample is one of the most annoying but inevitable risks while using upright microscopes. Such events will delay the entire process and meanwhile sensitive samples might alter their state and again fresh samples have to be prepared for accuracy. However, there’s no such risk of crashing the objective into the sample in inverted microscopes as the objective lens is placed below the stage in these microscopes.

5. Easy to use

Lastly, it is very easy to use inverted microscopes ( without much training as the sample moves in the same direction in the same direction as the stage is moved by the observer. Thus, it is easier for trainees and beginners to get used to the equipment quickly and go about the work without much training.

How Custom Cable Assemblies Help You Get Better Results?

Custom cable assemblies these days are increasingly becoming popular as they offer immense opportunities of perfecting your cabling in your own required way. There are great many custom cable assembly providers guaranteeing state of the high quality cabling products for diverse manufacturing processes. Actually custom manufacturing offers you the advantage of using different kinds of cabling materials and techniques of assembly in your cable assembly product. Depending upon the higher buying power and technical proficiency of these suppliers you can get the best cable product for your purpose. Irrespective of the type of electronics project you need to handle or irrespective of typical manufacturing or industrial requirement you have in hand outsourcing cable products can decrease hazards and costs to a minimum while you can always enjoy the advantages of high quality custom cable assemblies products. From ensuring high durability to enhancing performance and efficiency to requiring least maintenance, these custom made cable solutions are perfect in every regards, whether you have qualitative or cost consideration as priority.

How Custom Cable Assemblies Help You Get Better Results

Custom design made for your specific purpose

A thoroughly custom design that is made to address specific purposes or applications will obviously give better and glitch free performance compared to so called standard assembly products available in the market. Until now, this is the biggest benefit of custom cable assembly made by your cabling partner. Actually custom manufacturers have the ability to customize each and every aspect of the internal wiring of your product and thus just uniquely address the purpose. As for customizing your wiring, you can begin by customizing the color, then by including a custom stripe or just imprinting the cable with a number or logo to facilitate ease of identification. This is just one aspect of customizing the cable assembly which mainly goes on the outer side of the product. In addition to that there other customizing options to drive performance and efficiency of the cable as well. By using custom material in the cable assembly you can increase performance, enhance durability, make the product tougher to withstand wear and tear and boost cost effectiveness. As for getting the perfect product of your choice through customizing you have practically unlimited expanse of choices.

Peace of mind with a regular wiring partner

Most businesses once deciding in favor of custom cable assembly prefer to partner with their preferred cable assembly supplier or manufacturer. In most cases the manufacturer is very likely to assign a design consultant who from time to time will give appropriate suggestions for your cable requirements and accordingly ensure procurement of best in class products. Moreover, with such a dedicated approach you always receive cabling solutions that just get into your manufacturing process without slightest glitches. Furthermore, by offering technical drawings and by guiding the installation process or in certain cases by offering training to your stuff, the consultant expert provides complete peace of mind.

Cost effectiveness guaranteed

By opting for a custom cable manufacturers holding your hands as the vendor, the performance in your production line is guaranteed to find a boost. Besides optimizing performance and perfecting the production line this facilitates lowering the inventory cost to a great extent. Seamlessly integration of the cable manufacturing into the ongoing manufacturing process in your business makes it exceptionally easy to reorder parts and thus reduce the cost incurred in the process of procurement. Besides that, as the technicians no more needs to go through the rigorous process pertaining to cable assembly you can ensure greater efficiency and this would directly reflect in higher cost savings for inventory.

Ease of installation

By opting for a cabling partner who continues to take care of all your custom cabling solutions, you can now buy materials in a piecemeal fashion and integrate them or install them without wasting any production time. Pre ordering of the cable products will ensure rapid shipment and installation making the business process more value driven. Moreover, you always enjoy the guarantee provided by your cabling partner and so all cable products before being shipped to your facility are likely to go through rigorous testing making any new addition and alteration completely full proof leaving no vulnerabilities or risks.

Ease of managing orders

Finally, it is the exceptional ease in the present day order management technology that offers highest ease and flexibility in respect of meeting the evolving demands of the production unit. The ability to place orders over web makes the whole process so smooth. With your inventory system equipped with web based ordering to the third party cable manufacturer, seamless delivery of parts and raw materials along with ease of installation is guaranteed in your production line.

Why You Should Use an Airpot Flask on a Boat

When they need to keep water or coffee hot many boaters prefer an airpot flask instead of a thermos bottle. This is because although thermos bottles are more versatile airpots are extremely convenient especially when you are on the move. Often people wonder whether a bottle is better at keeping hot compared to an airpot, but there is no difference between airpots and bottles of the same quality. Now the question is what exactly is an airpot? Essentially airpots are the pump style dispensers which can be found in coffee shops. They are most often used for coffee but they are also useful for storing hot water, hot chocolate, hot cider, and most cold drinks.

Convenience and Ease

In order to serve the beverage all you have to do is hold a glass or cup under the spigot and press the pump which is either a lever or button. It is quite convenient to make a large pot of coffee and then store it in the airpot or simply store boiling water which allows you to make your choice of instant drinks. The same is true for cold drinks as you can make lemonade, iced tea or any other drink in the airpot itself or store cold water in it for making any kind of cold drinks. This is great when you are on passage and all travelers have different schedules or if their preference for hot and cold beverages are different. All you have to do is carry some instant coffee, tea bags and hot chocolate and you are all set.

Main Advantages

The biggest advantage of an airpot over a thermos is that there is very less chance of spilling hot water and causing burns. On the other hand you don’t have to open the refrigerator for getting cold drinks in hot weather. It is also a good idea to wedge an airpot in a sink so that any accidental spills will go right down the drain.


One thing that you should keep in mind is that the insulating ability of different airpots varies a lot just like with thermos bottles. The best choices are the ones which have a vacuum liner and the second best are the ones with foam insulation. However, make sure that you completely stay away from the ones which simply have a double walled construction. Also bear in mind that it is rare to find cheap models that are good although buying an expensive one is also not a guarantee that you will get good quality. It is quite common to find thermos bottles ( which have a stainless steel vacuum liner, airpots usually have a glass liner. This poses a breakage risk but if you keep it wedged in a sink this will completely eliminate the chances that it will be thrown across the boat and break when being used.

When you are using a glass lined Why You Should Use an Airpot Flask on a Boatairpot flask or thermos bottle make sure that you warm it with some warm water before you pour any hot liquid into it. This will reduce the chances of the glass cracking due to the sudden change in temperature and will also heat the interior. Airpot exteriors are usually made of stainless steel or plastic. The plastic ones are more susceptible to breakage or cracks especially when they are stored. The problem of the seal on the vacuum breaking also occurs most with these and this causes the loss of the insulating ability.

Choice of Features

The other feature to choose is a push button pump or lever and the latter are less likely to develop problems and are also more convenient. Apart from this a user may also end up getting fingers pinched if not careful. Of course you need to bear in mind that airpots with levers are slightly more expensive. The final choice is size with most airpots able to hold around 2 liters which means approximately 6 mugs of coffee. It is also possible to find an airpot flask that can hold 3 liters of liquid while gallon airpots are also available for heavy usage. It is also important to fill the airpot to the brim if you want the liquids to really stay close to their original temperature.

How a Thermos Jug Can Keep Liquids Hot or Cold for a Long Time

A thermos jug becomes quite handy when you want to keep things at a constant temperature. This means that if you put a hot beverage into a thermos bottle or jug it will remain hot and similarly cold drinks will stay cold for a long time. Now we need to understand the working of a thermos flask and for this we need to understand how heat travels.

How Heat Travels

Heat is an energy that travels through three phenomenon known as conduction, convection and radiation.

•  Conduction – This causes the transfer of heat from one mass to another when they touch just like heat flows into our body when we touch something that is hot.

•  Convection – This phenomenon happens without direct touch for instance if you turn on a fan heater it will blow hot air into the room. Hot air is lighter than cold air so it will rise upwards. In doing so it pushes the cold air out of the way so the cool air near the ceiling travels downwards towards the floor while the heater again lets out hot air and the cycle goes on warming the room. When heat moves in this manner with the help of a mobile liquid or gas it is called convection. An example of convection heating is when you heat soup in a saucepan.

•  Radiation – This phenomenon is slightly different from both convection as well as conduction. When objects are heated they radiate light which is why camp fires have red, orange and yellow flames. This is because the heat energy from the fire excites the atoms in the objects and makes them unstable. As they are unstable these atoms quickly return to their normal state and give off the energy in the form of light. Sometimes the light from the unstable atoms may even be invisible and if the light produced by them is too intense it is known as infrared radiation which cannot be seen by the eyes but felt as heat instead. This is why old fashioned incandescent lamps are hot to the touch even though they have glass and vacuum surrounding them. This process of heat transfer is called radiation.

Why Coffee Gets Cold

The temperature of boiling water is 100 degrees Celsius or 212 degree Fahrenheit while the room temperature on a moderate day should be somewhere around 15 to 20 degrees Celsius. Due to the fact that the water that you have heated, is much hotter compared to the room, the heat from the coffee pot flows rapidly into the surroundings. Some heat is also lost due to conduction because the coffee mug or pot will be placed on a worktop or table and the heat will directly flow downwards. The heat emanating from the coffee pot or mug will heat the air around it which will start moving which causes more heat loss due to convection and some heat is also lost due to radiation. All these three factors of conduction, convection and radiation will cause even piping hot coffee to become completely cold within an hour. Hence it can be said that if you want your coffee to stay hot you need to stop conduction, convection and radiation and this can be done by pouring the coffee into a thermos jug or flask.

thermos jug

How a Vacuum Flask Works

A vacuum flask is essentially a highly insulated jug. Most versions of this product have an outer plastic or metal case and an inner lining chamber which have two layers of glass between them. What’s more these glass layers are also separated by a vacuum and the glass is coated with a reflective layer of metal. Flasks which are unbreakable do not contain glass and instead there are two layers of stainless steel with a reflecting layer and a vacuum between them. To add to the insulation there is a screw down lid on the top.

With the help of these simple features almost all heat transfer due to conduction, convection and radiation is prevented. The conduction is prevented by vacuum, the tight lid ensures that no air can leave or enter the flask eliminating convection and radiation is prevented by the reflective inner lining of chamber. In this manner virtually no heat can escape the flask keeping the liquids hot for a long time. Just like heat cannot escape the flask it cannot penetrate into the flask either, which ensures that cold items remain cold in the thermos jug.

Exploring the Gothic Story – Afterward by Edith Wharton

Edith Wharton was an acclaimed American author who in her writing career won many international accolades including Pulitzer Prize in 1920 and nomination for Nobel Prize in Literature consecutively in 1927, 1928 and 1930. ‘Afterward’ is one of the finest works in Wharton’s oeuvre displaying all her characteristic literary elements and conceptions in full force. If she is today known for her brilliant novels and short stories that portray her natural wit coupled up with grave psychological and social insights into the privileged class of America, the Afterward by Edith Wharton has all these traits in the finest manner possible.

Following the great tradition of ghost story with social themes

For years telling a suspense filled ghost story with psychological and social overtones had created a volume of writing representing different types of prose and literary styles. The gothic horror and ghostly elements of Victorian era had been incorporated in many famous stories of that era. The Turn of the Screw by Henry James is a great example of this evolving genre of fiction. Wharton knowing that this idiom of suspense can be useful to portray her characters in the light of psychological focus, she had written several such stories and even published a complete book comprising them. While these stories on the surface level are sure to give you an experience ridden with suspense for the unpredictable, their underlying preoccupation with socially ridiculous characters had made the storyline equally significant as a literary commentary on society.

Development of the storyline and suspense

The suspense takes over the story as Mary and the interchangeable narrator voice in her place, continues to describe a story concerning a person named Ned until she realizes that something unexpected is at stake because the ghost of the story arrived in the doorstep. In spite of the ridiculousness of the tale to our matured ears, the literary skills never broke the suspense loose and easily purport us to the world of unexpected and unknown. The character of Mary with her ignorance of the husband’s business helps weaving the plot and corresponding suspense even better. Though there is not a straightforward moral that one can draw from the storyline, at least we can sense that the author is suggesting against our long held misconception about our so called knowledge of people around us. Anyone loved and wanted too much may ultimately bring us sadness. This has been exemplified with a gritty storytelling and development of the thrilling plot so characteristic of Edith Wharton ghost stories.

Exploring the Gothic Story - Afterward by Edith Wharton

A fantastic gothic story but with a difference

‘Afterward’ carries an array of elements reminiscent of American Gothic style of writing. Numerous characteristic Gothic elements like incorporation of a supernatural theme and addressing a ghost in all familiarity, a dark and shadowed settings, the main character is often taking refuge in oblivion and reference to architectural elements like missing passages and above all suppressed secrets or truths from the yester years, all these perfectly gave the settings of a typical Gothic horror story, though Wharton carefully avoided the extravaganza of horror and rather concentrated on vivid development on the suspense that ultimately would reveal the denied secret to the readers and everyone. As explained by the scholars on Gothic fiction (, a typical strange relationship with the very familiar one is the quintessential trait of them and in that respect the present story perfectly fits in this category.

Multifaceted conflicts of interests among characters

Any major work of fiction invariably has several conflicting characters incorporating their individual flavor, point of view and contradictions. The present story is no different in this regard. While exploring the memories gradually by the central character it explores several characters along with their conflicts of interest, personal attributes and conflicts and contradictions that exist not only among men or women but on a larger plane between man and the society. This shows Wharton’s infallible preoccupation with the social criticism that she elaborately stressed across almost all her works. The setting is perfect and the mood of the storytelling had been created with extreme care and moving back and forth in capturing the memory by the protagonist had been done with astute clarity except the fact that for a twenty first century reader using the third person narration along with the protagonist seems to be a cliché literary style.

With a rich, dark, mystery ridden setting in the countryside of Nineteenth century England and with a remoteness and historical aura and secretive atmosphere surrounding it, the reader gets more than what is required to get mentally delivered in a different time-space and this is one of the biggest praiseworthy attribute of this story. Ghost in this story served a significant symbolic role as well. When bringing ghosts with them the residents of the house do not have knowledge of it until much later when the damage is done. Thus ghosts actually work towards shattering the dull aristocratic idyllic life and make it stand on its tiptoe.